Thanks to researchers at Tel Aviv University, relief for those with brain damage may be one step closer. A computer chip cerebellum was successfully wired into a rat whose own cerebellum had been disrupted; the result was that the rat's response to eye blink stimuli (like a puff of air in the eye) were essentially the same as an unaltered rat.
The science behind this involved analysis of signals going in and out of a real cerebellum; this made up the "programming" of the chip. Eventually, the chip was able to recognize input, analyze that input based on the previous programming, and send the outcome back out to the brain.
While it is several decades away, at least, we may be heading towards a world where future generations have relief from brain disease like stroke or dementia. To learn more about these new advances, check the links below.