Lightweight Camera for an Artist/Designer

I am an art and design student, and recently, I've realized I need to have a more capable camera than my smartphone or the sub-$100 point & shoot I had previously relied on. My work ranges between disciplines such as film, sculpture, and public performance works, and I would like to have a decent camera for documenting my work, capturing inspiration in my life, light photography, and certain amounts of quick and dirty filmmaking. In the last case, however, I do have access too higher end video cameras, so it's less of a concern for me.

With all of that in mind, I'd love recommendations from this community as to what I should look for in the buying process. A good friend of mine who works as a professional photographer personally recommended a Fujifilm X10 or X20, both of which I like a great deal for their size, image quality, and look. I'm not looking to spend above $500, although I am willing to purchase a camera used. Any suggestions or tips would be greatly appreciated! Thoughts?