Why doesn't android have an iCloud-like backup service?

I once owned an HTC Thunderbolt. I hated it. It was a very bad phone. It made me switch to the iPhone. I'm curious how far android has come since I left it in early 2012.

One thing that shocked me was that the backup system in android didn't back up things like text messages, photos, settings like bluetooth pairings, or even app data. Sure, it installed all the old apps upon restore, but the data is always gone. iCloud backs up all of these things and when you get a replacement phone, you log in and everything is identical to the old phone.

I could never recommend an android phone to someone like my mom because I live 3 hours away, and what happens if she needs to get her phone replaced? All of her settings are just gone and she's shit out of luck? That doesn't seem like a reasonable option.

Has this improved since gingerbread? Is there a unified backup service? If not, how the hell does android not have this in the year of our lord 2013.