Is feeling different to thinking? How are they defined, scientifically?

What sort of answer has the very latest in scientific research tell us about thinking and feeling?

E.g.: I'm a very reflective guy. When I'm riding the bus from school or work to home (or even just walking down the street) if I haven't got something important on my mind, what I'll tend to be doing is taking in the 'deeper' things around me, not so much the fast-moving flashes of small and numerous 'surface' things going on - which require thinking to concentrate and process them.

I really feel a lot, more than I think.

I feel the hues, the underlying vibe, the 'emotion' of what's happening around me. It affects me. (I might be inspired by the glowing twilight hues of the just-rained-on stone sidewalk as the bus stops at the next bus stop, or another scene may bother me and make me feel irritated, as nothing else is taking up my mind at the time and I'm bothered by its 'atmosphere'.)

But what does this even mean? (me feeling rather than thinking?)

Are they just different 'modes' of the same act, of thinking (or using different, or more inner layers, of the mechanics of the brain's thought processing), or what?

How does science explain 'feeling'? And how does it define 'thinking'?

Also... is there a God? just kidding (hey Josh started it.)