As the constant drip of new revelations about NSA surveillance programs continues to stoke outrage online, the nationwide Restore the Fourth rally seems to be the first major, physical example of the ongoing backlash. The event, which took place on July 4th in over 100 cities, is being called the internet’s biggest rally since SOPA, the bill that threatened to cripple and control the open web in early 2012. But does Restore the Fourth have what it takes to become a full-fledged social movement? The Verge went to rallies in New York and San Francisco to see.

“They say wiretap / We say fight back”; “Keep your mitts off our bits”; “Hey, hey, NSA / Stop your spying, go away”; “Stop the surveillance / Restore the Fourth Amendment.” The day’s most common chants show how both events — which were peaceful — avoided some of the mixed-messaging pitfalls that caused problems for previous movements like Occupy or the WTO protests in the late 90s. Protest signs featured a smattering of internet memes accompanying more straightforward populist outrage: “Stop all the Downloadin”; “I was born in 1984 / I refuse to die in 1984”; and “Obama: I am disappoint.”