Skip to main content

Congress took $101 million in donations from the ISP industry — here’s how much your lawmaker got

Comcast, Verizon, AT&T, and others spread their money far and wide to influence your government

Share this story

Paul Ryan Swears In Members Of The 115th Congress
Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images

The FCC is about to give massive internet service providers the power to divide the internet. It is at risk of becoming unrecognizable. A vital global utility that has been a boon to creative and economic freedom for people around the world may be turned into a twisted land of tolls and corporate control.

Those who control the network control the future

The stakes are high. The internet now touches every town, every city, and every single one of us — whether we use it or not. Those who control the network control the future.

The FCC is the current venue for this fight, but Congress will eventually intervene. As telecom expert Susan Crawford argues, the FCC is “being outrageous” to force Congress’ involvement. And both net neutrality advocates and the telecom industry have asked for lawmakers to act. Advocates believe a law will make net neutrality more durable. But ISPs are betting they’ll be able to write the bill — because they’ve paid for the opportunity.

In March, we published a story that showed contributions from the ISP industry to members of Congress who voted to repeal a landmark FCC privacy rule, opening the door to the sale of customer data. It was one of our most popular stories of the year, and many of you asked why we only published contributions to some members of Congress. Incidentally, every one of the 265 members who voted for the measure in March were Republicans. And many of those same members endorse the effort to end net neutrality.

But it’s fair to want to see monetary influence across all of Congress. While it is clear that alignment with the ISPs is currently drawn along party lines, the industry’s attempt to gain favor with lawmakers is not partisan. Entrenched telecommunications companies liberally spread money and attention to everyone who holds office. Sometimes that influence comes in the form of lavish parties with Olympic athletes and lobbyists, but consistently it comes in the form of contributions to campaigns.

It’s impossible to quantify the overall influence of this powerful industry, but we can chart some of it. Below you will find contributions to individual members of Congress, and those members’ leadership PACs, from 1989 to the present day. This money came from the telecommunication industry’s own PACs, their individual members or employees or owners, and those individuals’ immediate families. This data was prepared for The Verge by The Center for Responsive Politics: an independent, non-partisan nonprofit research group that tracks money in US politics and its effect on elections and public policy.

Telecom industry contributions: US Senate

Member NameStatePartyTotal
McCain, JohnAZR$2,554,784
Markey, EdMAD$1,692,749
Blunt, RoyMOR$1,283,416
McConnell, MitchKYR$1,119,163
Nelson, BillFLD$1,028,790
Schumer, Charles ENYD$984,757
Thune, JohnSDR$928,428
Warner, MarkVAD$805,894
Burr, RichardNCR$733,127
Menendez, RobertNJD$729,757
Grassley, ChuckIAR$727,219
Wicker, RogerMSR$724,850
Hatch, Orrin GUTR$677,830
Wyden, RonORD$663,289
Cornyn, JohnTXR$622,125
Bennet, Michael FCOD$593,925
Durbin, DickILD$573,225
Isakson, JohnnyGAR$532,461
McCaskill, ClaireMOD$525,009
Gardner, CoryCOR$523,378
Cochran, ThadMSR$516,280
Leahy, PatrickVTD$508,307
Graham, LindseySCR$485,442
Murray, PattyWAD$474,376
Roberts, PatKSR$463,350
Klobuchar, AmyMND$446,173
Blumenthal, RichardCTD$446,045
Shelby, Richard CALR$443,610
Toomey, PatPAR$442,778
Heller, DeanNVR$440,750
Moran, JerryKSR$425,850
Portman, RobOHR$421,058
Feinstein, DianneCAD$402,539
Gillibrand, KirstenNYD$399,660
Rubio, MarcoFLR$391,679
Fischer, DebNER$381,550
Brown, SherrodOHD$377,066
Schatz, BrianHID$367,000
Murkowski, LisaAKR$365,712
Udall, TomNMD$355,017
Carper, TomDED$339,973
Cruz, TedTXR$322,505
Casey, BobPAD$319,832
Barrasso, John AWYR$311,200
Crapo, MikeIDR$304,559
Van Hollen, ChrisMDD$302,617
Sanders, BernieVTI$294,923
Alexander, LamarTNR$292,268
Booker, CoryNJD$290,343
Tester, JonMTD$289,917
Stabenow, DebbieMID$288,855
Collins, Susan MMER$275,520
Scott, TimSCR$275,049
Coons, ChrisDED$269,152
Cantwell, MariaWAD$268,596
Flake, JeffAZR$268,500
Reed, JackRID$266,090
Manchin, JoeWVD$259,125
Lee, MikeUTR$256,250
Johnson, RonWIR$242,730
Inhofe, James MOKR$231,659
Boozman, JohnARR$228,050
Baldwin, TammyWID$223,339
Whitehouse, SheldonRID$210,631
Cardin, BenMDD$209,598
Murphy, Christopher SCTD$209,466
Enzi, MikeWYR$209,396
Kaine, TimVAD$207,898
Franken, AlMND$200,263
Corker, BobTNR$192,325
Daines, StevenMTR$189,800
Shaheen, JeanneNHD$179,473
Cotton, TomARR$177,660
Heitkamp, HeidiNDD$172,077
Capito, Shelley MooreWVR$171,699
Cassidy, BillLAR$163,999
Peters, GaryMID$160,505
Heinrich, MartinNMD$144,429
Donnelly, JoeIND$141,892
Hirono, Mazie KHID$139,805
Perdue, DavidGAR$133,450
Tillis, ThomNCR$124,700
Sullivan, DanAKR$123,650
Rounds, MikeSDR$120,898
Young, ToddINR$118,650
Lankford, JamesOKR$116,550
Paul, RandKYR$116,278
Hoeven, JohnNDR$108,520
Duckworth, TammyILD$94,560
Merkley, JeffORD$80,628
Sasse, BenNER$75,950
King, AngusMEI$72,000
Masto, Catherine CortezNVD$62,081
Risch, James EIDR$59,750
Kennedy, JohnLAR$56,950
Hassan, MaggieNHD$55,630
Harris, Kamala DCAD$53,696
Strange, LutherALR$50,200
Ernst, JoniIAR$44,500
Warren, ElizabethMAD$40,219

Telecom industry contributions: US House of Representatives

Walden, GregROR02$1,605,986
Upton, FredRMI06$1,590,125
Hoyer, Steny HDMD05$1,429,710
Barton, JoeRTX06$1,262,757
Shimkus, John MRIL15$1,044,204
Clyburn, James EDSC06$1,030,550
Eshoo, AnnaDCA18$891,664
Goodlatte, BobRVA06$815,099
Pallone, Frank JrDNJ06$814,919
Smith, LamarRTX21$810,462
Conyers, John JrDMI13$756,125
Scalise, SteveRLA01$749,025
Ryan, PaulRWI01$722,646
McCarthy, KevinRCA23$676,850
Rodgers, Cathy McMorrisRWA05$673,530
Pelosi, NancyDCA12$668,108
Doyle, MikeDPA14$615,235
Sessions, PeteRTX32$614,762
Crowley, JosephDNY14$612,800
Blackburn, MarshaRTN07$600,999
DeGette, DianaDCO01$592,419
Issa, DarrellRCA49$581,843
Engel, Eliot LDNY16$563,098
Green, GeneDTX29$538,865
Matsui, Doris ODCA06$528,670
Rush, Bobby LDIL01$501,701
Schultz, Debbie WassermanDFL23$477,989
Latta, Robert EROH05$466,250
Sensenbrenner, F James JrRWI05$440,647
Thompson, Bennie GDMS02$437,500
Butterfield, G KDNC01$408,000
Guthrie, BrettRKY02$398,500
Welch, PeterDVT01$389,910
Tiberi, PatROH12$384,521
Roskam, PeterRIL06$383,628
Kinzinger, AdamRIL16$383,383
Rogers, HalRKY05$360,450
McHenry, PatrickRNC10$357,850
Perlmutter, EdDCO07$346,655
Chabot, SteveROH01$332,083
Lujan, Ben RDNM03$331,750
Young, DonRAK01$308,280
Ruppersberger, DutchDMD02$298,355
Kind, RonDWI03$295,200
Lance, LeonardRNJ07$290,550
Nunes, DevinRCA22$290,500
Burgess, MichaelRTX26$285,750
Graves, SamRMO06$285,322
Brady, Robert ADPA01$276,550
Murphy, TimRPA18$275,450
Bishop, SanfordDGA02$273,850
Meeks, Gregory WDNY05$273,336
Hensarling, JebRTX05$270,198
Coffman, MikeRCO06$269,121
Levin, SanderDMI09$265,500
Frelinghuysen, RodneyRNJ11$263,250
Lofgren, ZoeDCA19$262,244
Larson, John BDCT01$260,050
Schrader, KurtDOR05$258,315
Brady, KevinRTX08$257,700
Dent, CharlieRPA15$253,684
McNerney, JerryDCA09$251,150
Clarke, Yvette DDNY09$247,700
Harper, GreggRMS03$245,200
Sanchez, LindaDCA38$243,000
Aderholt, Robert BRAL04$241,556
Reichert, DaveRWA08$235,232
Bilirakis, GusRFL12$234,400
Neal, Richard EDMA01$230,350
Paulsen, ErikRMN03$226,996
Thornberry, MacRTX13$225,900
Schiff, AdamDCA28$221,824
Long, BillyRMO07$221,500
Lewis, JohnDGA05$221,174
Olson, PeteRTX22$220,500
Johnson, SamRTX03$219,785
Calvert, KenRCA42$219,212
McCaul, MichaelRTX10$216,500
King, Steven ARIA04$210,810
Carter, JohnRTX31$208,550
Kelly, MikeRPA03$208,050
King, PeteRNY02$207,542
Hastings, Alcee LDFL20$207,500
Rogers, Mike DRAL03$205,200
Shuster, BillRPA09$202,500
Jordan, JimROH04$202,000
Griffith, MorganRVA09$198,900
Ros-Lehtinen, IleanaRFL27$197,774
Johnson, BillROH06$196,666
Nadler, JerroldDNY10$194,200
Meehan, PatrickRPA07$192,750
Richmond, CedricDLA02$192,650
Renacci, JimROH16$191,450
Peters, ScottDCA52$188,660
Tonko, PaulDNY20$188,250
Graves, TomRGA14$187,250
Smith, AdamDWA09$186,158
Yoder, KevinRKS03$177,871
Sherman, BradDCA30$176,670
Thompson, MikeDCA05$175,145
Castor, KathyDFL14$174,616
Jenkins, LynnRKS02$173,921
Connolly, GerryDVA11$173,886
Slaughter, Louise MDNY25$173,582
Granger, KayRTX12$170,100
Brooks, SusanRIN05$168,500
Cramer, KevinRND01$168,500
Cleaver, EmanuelDMO05$166,760
Lucas, Frank DROK03$166,500
Cuellar, HenryDTX28$166,136
Smith, AdrianRNE03$165,834
Wagner, Ann LRMO02$164,750
Buchanan, VernonRFL16$162,550
Walters, MimiRCA45$161,500
Cole, TomROK04$159,150
Price, DavidDNC04$157,844
Denham, JeffRCA10$157,700
Cohen, SteveDTN09$157,500
Jackson Lee, SheilaDTX18$157,350
Costa, JimDCA16$155,900
Costello, RyanRPA06$152,800
Langevin, JimDRI02$152,575
DeLauro, Rosa LDCT03$152,000
Collins, ChrisRNY27$151,060
Lowey, Nita MDNY17$151,010
Johnson, HankDGA04$149,000
Diaz-Balart, MarioRFL25$148,800
Scott, DavidDGA13$148,250
Larsen, RickDWA02$144,000
Cardenas, TonyDCA29$143,750
Mullin, MarkwayneROK02$141,750
Himes, JimDCT04$139,633
Franks, TrentRAZ08$139,600
Loebsack, DavidDIA02$137,325
Cummings, Elijah EDMD07$137,100
Hudson, RichardRNC08$136,750
Sires, AlbioDNJ08$136,443
Conaway, MikeRTX11$135,750
Rothfus, Keith JRPA12$134,150
Sinema, KyrstenDAZ09$134,046
Walberg, TimRMI07$131,850
Yarmuth, John ADKY03$131,250
Davis, RodneyRIL13$131,000
Scott, BobbyDVA03$130,731
Marino, TomRPA10$130,700
Clay, William L JrDMO01$130,500
Johnson, Eddie BerniceDTX30$130,250
Stivers, SteveROH15$129,701
Smith, JasonRMO08$129,250
Royce, EdRCA39$129,230
Flores, BillRTX17$127,500
Peterson, CollinDMN07$126,680
DelBene, SuzanDWA01$126,351
Simpson, MikeRID02$125,200
Davis, Danny KDIL07$124,831
Visclosky, PeteDIN01$120,200
Cicilline, DavidDRI01$119,560
Poe, TedRTX02$119,155
Comstock, BarbaraRVA10$119,013
Foxx, VirginiaRNC05$115,700
Reed, TomRNY23$114,416
Young, DavidRIA03$113,755
Pascrell, Bill JrDNJ09$113,240
Maloney, Carolyn BDNY12$112,400
Sewell, Terri ADAL07$111,377
Gutierrez, Luis VDIL04$110,700
Lamborn, Douglas LRCO05$110,543
Deutch, TedDFL22$110,250
Chu, JudyDCA27$110,100
Duffy, Sean PRWI07$108,750
Bass, KarenDCA37$108,500
Maloney, Sean PatrickDNY18$107,890
Jeffries, HakeemDNY08$107,400
Hunter, Duncan DRCA50$107,000
Tipton, ScottRCO03$105,939
Gibbs, BobROH07$105,250
Luetkemeyer, BlaineRMO03$105,000
Black, DianeRTN06$104,750
Wilson, JoeRSC02$104,750
Womack, SteveRAR03$104,750
Collins, DougRGA09$103,600
Fudge, Marcia LDOH11$103,250
Capuano, Michael EDMA07$103,184
Hurd, WillRTX23$102,600
Kilmer, DerekDWA06$102,550
Culberson, JohnRTX07$101,600
Rice, KathleenDNY04$101,552
Marchant, KennyRTX24$101,000
Fortenberry, JeffRNE01$99,850
Beutler, Jaime HerreraRWA03$99,300
Holding, GeorgeRNC02$97,750
LoBiondo, FrankRNJ02$97,600
Cooper, JimDTN05$96,586
Graves, GarretRLA06$96,300
Valadao, DavidRCA21$94,750
Walorski, JackieRIN02$94,750
Doggett, LloydDTX35$94,152
Roby, MarthaRAL02$93,950
Beyer, DonDVA08$93,850
Ross, DennisRFL15$93,250
Rooney, TomRFL17$93,025
Veasey, MarcDTX33$92,850
Lieu, TedDCA33$92,175
Pearce, SteveRNM02$90,600
Foster, BillDIL11$88,750
McKinley, DavidRWV01$88,250
Messer, LukeRIN06$87,150
DeSantis, RonRFL06$86,626
Smith, ChrisRNJ04$85,848
Noem, KristiRSD01$85,600
Gohmert, Louis B JrRTX01$85,055
McSally, MarthaRAZ02$84,936
Blumenauer, EarlDOR03$84,550
Titus, DinaDNV01$84,533
Kennedy, Joe IIIDMA04$83,848
Curbelo, CarlosRFL26$83,600
Gowdy, TreyRSC04$83,250
Ruiz, RaulDCA36$82,288
Quigley, MikeDIL05$82,000
Bera, AmiDCA07$81,923
Rokita, ToddRIN04$81,250
Courtney, JoeDCT02$80,900
Castro, JoaquinDTX20$79,700
Green, AlDTX09$79,500
Buck, Kenneth RRCO04$79,350
Polis, JaredDCO02$78,550
Velazquez, Nydia MDNY07$76,807
Esty, ElizabethDCT05$76,275
Crist, CharlieDFL13$74,885
Bustos, CheriDIL17$73,633
Amodei, MarkRNV02$73,000
Jones, Walter B JrRNC03$72,800
Kuster, Ann MclaneDNH02$72,765
Gottheimer, JoshDNJ05$72,380
Vargas, JuanDCA51$71,950
Bucshon, LarryRIN08$71,750
McClintock, TomRCA04$71,299
Payne, Donald M JrDNJ10$71,250
Thompson, GlennRPA05$70,500
Hanabusa, ColleenDHI01$69,800
Lee, BarbaraDCA13$69,450
Bishop, MikeRMI08$68,250
Roybal-Allard, LucilleDCA40$68,150
Heck, DennisDWA10$68,000
Dingell, DebbieDMI12$67,716
Khanna, RoDCA17$66,801
Brownley, JuliaDCA26$66,746
Napolitano, GraceDCA32$66,625
Lowenthal, AlanDCA47$66,200
Schneider, BradDIL10$66,151
Vela, FilemonDTX34$64,735
Farenthold, BlakeRTX27$64,250
Poliquin, BruceRME02$63,750
Higgins, Brian MDNY26$63,350
Stefanik, EliseRNY21$62,750
Garamendi, JohnDCA03$61,750
Carson, AndreDIN07$60,750
Duncan, John J JrRTN02$60,750
Hultgren, RandyRIL14$60,550
Woodall, RobRGA07$60,250
Knight, SteveRCA25$60,000
Lipinski, DanielDIL03$59,000
Turner, Michael RROH10$58,500
Hill, FrenchRAR02$57,950
Wilson, FredericaDFL24$57,950
Wittman, RobRVA01$57,250
Cartwright, MattDPA17$57,000
Joyce, David PROH14$55,250
Schakowsky, JanDIL09$54,857
Aguilar, PeteDCA31$54,839
Serrano, Jose EDNY15$54,800
Ratcliffe, John LeeRTX04$53,950
Krishnamoorthi, RajaDIL08$53,836
Frankel, Lois JDFL21$53,180
Scott, AustinRGA08$53,050
Boyle, BrendanDPA13$52,700
Rice, TomRSC07$52,000
Byrne, BradleyRAL01$51,900
Schweikert, DavidRAZ06$51,750
Norcross, DonDNJ01$51,450
Meng, GraceDNY06$51,250
Walz, TimDMN01$51,250
Barr, AndyRKY06$51,100
Kelly, RobinDIL02$50,900
Bishop, RobRUT01$50,000
O'Rourke, BetoDTX16$49,747
Gallego, RubenDAZ07$49,605
Zeldin, LeeRNY01$49,350
Perry, ScottRPA04$48,500
Swalwell, EricDCA15$47,811
Katko, JohnRNY24$47,250
Beatty, JoyceDOH03$44,400
Labrador, RaulRID01$44,000
McGovern, James PDMA02$43,950
Barletta, LouRPA11$43,000
Crawford, RickRAR01$42,500
Fleischmann, ChuckRTN03$42,000
Loudermilk, BarryRGA11$41,900
Duncan, JeffRSC03$41,830
Pittenger, RobertRNC09$41,500
Webster, DanielRFL11$41,247
Palazzo, StevenRMS04$41,000
Rohrabacher, DanaRCA48$40,350
Carter, BuddyRGA01$39,250
Waters, MaxineDCA43$39,095
Grijalva, Raul MDAZ03$39,045
Bost, MikeRIL12$38,750
Delaney, John KDMD06$38,500
Gabbard, TulsiDHI02$38,451
Evans, DwightDPA02$38,000
Grisham, Michelle LujanDNM01$37,750
Torres, NormaDCA35$37,500
Hartzler, VickyRMO04$37,150
McCollum, BettyDMN04$37,000
Gallagher, MikeRWI08$36,862
Demings, ValDFL10$36,400
Love, MiaRUT04$36,225
LaHood, DarinRIL18$36,000
Keating, BillDMA09$35,900
Lynch, Stephen FDMA08$35,900
Ryan, TimDOH13$35,775
Walker, MarkRNC06$35,750
Coleman, BonnieDNJ12$35,250
Rouzer, DavidRNC07$34,300
Huizenga, BillRMI02$34,000
Suozzi, TomDNY03$33,900
Wenstrup, BradROH02$33,750
Donovan, DanRNY11$33,700
Bridenstine, JamesROK01$31,750
MacArthur, ThomasRNJ03$31,500
Posey, BillRFL08$31,500
Kildee, DanDMI05$30,355
Adams, AlmaDNC12$30,000
Bonamici, SuzanneDOR01$29,527
Moore, GwenDWI04$29,000
Williams, RogerRTX25$28,750
Kihuen, RubenDNV04$28,582
Emmer, TomRMN06$28,500
Ferguson, DrewRGA03$28,500
Stewart, ChrisRUT02$28,500
Pocan, MarkDWI02$28,009
Marshall, RogerRKS01$28,000
Blum, RodRIA01$27,650
Clark, KatherineDMA05$27,600
Sanford, MarkRSC01$27,600
Abraham, RalphRLA05$27,300
Moulton, SethDMA06$27,200
Cook, PaulRCA08$26,800
DeFazio, PeterDOR04$26,691
Lawrence, BrendaDMI14$26,400
Bacon, Donald JohnRNE02$26,000
Brooks, MoRAL05$26,000
Hollingsworth, TreyRIN09$26,000
Brown, AnthonyDMD04$25,850
Carbajal, SaludDCA24$25,500
Fitzpatrick, BrianRPA08$25,200
Bergman, JohnRMI01$25,000
Massie, ThomasRKY04$25,000
Moolenaar, JohnRMI04$25,000
Cheney, LizRWY01$24,500
Allen, Richard WRGA12$24,250
LaMalfa, DougRCA01$24,000
Russell, StevenROK05$23,500
Taylor, Scott WRVA02$23,500
Tenney, ClaudiaRNY22$23,000
Rochester, Lisa BluntDDE01$22,875
Faso, JohnRNY19$22,850
Comer, JamesRKY01$22,750
O'Halleran, TomDAZ01$21,750
Harris, AndyRMD01$21,700
Mast, BrianRFL18$21,500
Grothman, Glenn SRWI06$21,200
Lewis, JasonRMN02$21,050
Correa, LouDCA46$21,000
Hice, Jody BRGA10$21,000
Amash, JustinRMI03$20,650
Jenkins, EvanRWV03$20,500
Westerman, BruceRAR04$20,500
Huffman, JaredDCA02$20,250
Smucker, LloydRPA16$19,750
Biggs, AndyRAZ05$19,500
Davis, Susan ADCA53$19,200
Tsongas, NikiDMA03$19,007
Dunn, NealRFL02$18,500
Kaptur, MarcyDOH09$18,500
Ellison, KeithDMN05$18,365
Trott, DaveRMI11$18,250
Babin, BrianRTX36$18,000
Mitchell, PaulRMI10$18,000
Mooney, AlexRWV02$17,750
Speier, JackieDCA14$17,750
Kelly, TrentRMS01$17,700
Desaulnier, MarkDCA11$17,625
Gonzalez, VicenteDTX15$17,500
Nolan, RickDMN08$16,779
Banks, JimRIN03$16,303
Budd, TedRNC13$15,500
Barragan, NanetteDCA44$15,346
Takano, MarkDCA41$15,100
Murphy, StephanieDFL07$15,051
Norman, RalphRSC05$15,050
Roe, PhilRTN01$15,000
Raskin, JamieDMD08$14,911
Newhouse, DanRWA04$14,600
Meadows, Mark RRNC11$14,500
Yoho, TedRFL03$14,500
Estes, RonRKS04$13,807
Weber, RandyRTX14$13,750
Desjarlais, ScottRTN04$13,700
Brat, DaveRVA07$13,500
Soto, DarrenDFL09$13,500
Handel, KarenRGA06$13,325
Espaillat, AdrianoDNY13$13,300
Gomez, JimmyDCA34$13,300
Gaetz, MattRFL01$13,000
Pingree, ChellieDME01$12,950
Arrington, JodeyRTX19$12,500
Gosar, PaulRAZ04$12,250
Panetta, JimmyDCA20$12,050
Garrett, TomRVA05$12,000
McEachin, DonaldDVA04$11,925
Rutherford, JohnRFL04$10,000
Kustoff, DavidRTN08$9,000
Higgins, ClayRLA03$7,050
Palmer, GaryRAL06$7,000
Rosen, JackyDNV03$6,287
Gianforte, GregRMT01$5,900
Lawson, AlDFL05$5,900
Shea-Porter, CarolDNH01$5,888
Johnson, MikeRLA04$5,000
Jayapal, PramilaDWA07$3,855
Rooney, FrancisRFL19$3,500
Curtis, JohnRUT03$2,000
Sarbanes, JohnDMD03$1,040
Davidson, WarrenROH08$15

Data compiled and provided to The Verge by The Center For Responsive Politics ( Figures represent contributions to members and their leadership PACs, made by their individual members or employees or owners, and those individuals’ immediate families. Contributors include Comcast, Cox Enterprises, AT&T, Verizon Communications, CenturyLink, T-Mobile USA, DISH Network, Motorola Solutions, CTIA, Quotidian Gallery Corp, SoftBank Corp, Level 3 Communications, American Cable Association, Tectus Corp, Transglobal Technologies, US Cellular, Cablevision Systems, Mada Communications, Motorola Inc, Intelsat Holdings, NCTA (The Internet & Television Association), NTCA (Rural Broadband Association), US Telecom Association, Granite Telecommunications, Telapex Inc, Windstream Communications, IDT Corp, Eatel, Transtelco, Atlantic Tele-Network, GCI, Telephone & Data Systems Inc, Cincinnati Bell, and Zayo Group.