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Here’s why it took decades to create blue LEDs.

When I was a kid, LEDs were almost always red and largely only used as power indicators on stereo receivers and similar electronics.

The Veritasium YouTube channel tells the story of how the Nobel Prize-winning work of three researchers — Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, and, separately, Shuji Nakamura — made blue light-emitting diodes possible in the 1990s.